The Harrisburg City Beautiful Movement took place from 1900 to about 1915. It was one of the earliest movements of urban improvement across the country and, as William Wilson has noted (1989, 128), "the first to use the inspiring, vivifying, phrase City Beautiful." The movement was exceptional also for its rapid program of modernization, its broad civic support, and uniting of programs of utility with those of beautification (Wilson 1989). Mira Lloyd Dock's 1900 speech, J. Horace McFarland's propaganda, and Mayor Vance McCormick's leadership spurred the city's residents to take up the task of improving Pennsylvania's capital. They fixed roads, created parks, enhanced sanitation, reduced the risk of floods, and generally upgraded Harrisburg's facilities and aesthetics, starting with a new Capitol Building.